At first Europe, domestic fuel prices has been the persistent production of small-displacement air compressors engine, lightweight models, which in the sparsely populated, oil prices are other parts of the United States is almost a quarter of the unpopular, so the three major American cars Giant GM, Ford, Chrysler are flooding, large displacement-based models.
Therefore, in the 1970s and 1980s the United States has been dominating the three giants, of which GM’s market share in the United States has been about 46% (then GM, but threatened to do 60, the stock 60 dollars, the core Executives 60 years old, commonly known as the 60-60-60 program), but the change occurred in 1978. That year, the United States passed the fuel tax bill, began tofocus on fuel economy, a clear car to produce cars need to reach the level of 18 miles per gallon, which is now about 13 liters per hundred kilometers, and in 1985 to achieve 27.5MPG Of the level, which is now about 8.5 liters.
The bill in the United States to combat almost unmatched, the fuel have air compressors in the best quiet air compressors tax policy for the best air compressors has very high rated in United States began to switch from large displacement engine to small displacement, from the four-wheel drive, after driving large cars to switch to small cars, the three car giants can not help huge amounts of money to reduce vehicle size, but due to the prolonged lack of experience in the research and development of small cars, and therefore each is newly developed, resulting in a severe decline in the quality of American cars. Consumers often complain to the car repair.
Not only that, to GM, for example, GM Mitchell-led design department in the lost, the successor of the sub-base has always thought that the design department should not exist as a leading sector, it should be a part of automotive research and development should not be initiated, people. Therefore, the design of General Motors began the “engineering industry to do the structure, space, size, design, to the design department, assembled by the design department to these places” period; the appearance began to mediocrity. (You can think about the general Pontiac Aztec in 2000, the shape, AZTEK, is “deadly drug division” in the old white open that bike, to know how the GM form is Guards, then The design director Wayne’s comments have been thoroughly ignored)
As the redesign is too costly, so the US auto companies began to try to save costs by sharing the best designs air compressorsdesign, such as the same fender, trunk cover used in different models. This led to the factory products almost no attraction, homogenization is too serious.
Ultimately abandoned the advantages of their rear-drive large car, the older generation of engineers began to retire, the new development of the poor reliability of the former car, the consumer over and over again the car, very flat shape on the Detroit car Americans began to disappointment. Cricket Highlights
At this point, Europe and Japan have always insisted on small cars and economic development, in this reform effort to benefit. Especially in Japan, to provide consumers with high quality and high reliability of the US car. Not only that but the Japanese also use the media to seize the opportunity to discredit the local US auto companies, that they are stubborn, not environmental protection, etc., the US people and the relationship between the US car. At that time the US media are elbow out of the Shui’s.
American cars in the development of small cars under adverse circumstances, trying to revive the glory by a pickup. US auto companies believe that fuel economy will only stimulate consumer consumption of higher-level models, will not care about environmental protection. They believe that a family can only afford the fuel consumption of the mid-size car, but because of the promotion of fuel tax bill, medium and large cars gradually optimize the fuel consumption to mid-size car standards, so the family car will slowly climb the tendency to choose a higher level Models. In theory, this is the case, the US Department of pickup sales.
This time, the Japanese see this, the use of environmental protection at the date of the public opinion of the advantages of vigorously attack the United States car fuel is not okay, is raising the price of vehicles to blind consumers in the United States, to confuse the Americans to buy pickup without social responsibility. This is selling feelings.
Americans in automobile production have been a great disaster, but the situation is often “the wall down the crowd push, drums million people hammer.”
The rise of the socialist countries in the 1970s and 80s made the United States uncomfortable. It intends to incorporate Japan into its sphere of influence to curb China’s influence in Asia and is happy to help Japan develop its economy. Japan to the United States put forward their control of the yen exchange rate, let the exchange rate lower. With the yen lower, the cost advantage of the exchange rate, Japan in the United States, automotive, consumer electronics, camera positions gradually increased.
At the same time because of the depreciation of the yen, Japanese cars have a substantial cost advantage, the exchange rate difference alone can have $ 4,000 per vehicle costs, in addition to the US labor costs for the US auto industry caused a significant financial burden. More famous is that American workers continue to strike, to increase the health insurance policy movement, but also to the US car economy are a headache. At this time the US car, not only to face the protests of workers but also to try to start, so agreed to the higher health insurance, there are a lot of money surplus labor compensation. American unions even for this nothing to do the workers to get the full wage, the event calender 2017 specials holidays US auto industry in a substantial burden on the road.
However, the media’s propaganda almost gave the US auto industry a massive blow. After a lot of GM’s big brother’s memoirs have referred to the press’s “reverse chauvinism”, that is like imported brands like local brands.
At that time, the US auto companies also lobbied the government to limit the number of imported cars, to the US auto industry to develop a small car breathing space. But in fact, the US auto companies that they have been unable to develop perfect small car models. But also because too many small displacement models put so that consumers increasingly pursue important movement patterns, so the US auto companies or at that time the development of large displacement cars, and achieved some success. However, the most business-minded Japanese, the use of the two stages before and after the US car price data once again inciting the Americans. As the large displacement models and selling high prices, so the average selling price of US cars continues to rise, the Japanese used to attack US cars will only price increases to deceive consumers. At this point, the US car completely lost the trust of the US government.
Into the 21st century, the global warming of the big arguments once again directed at the US large-displacement vehicles, so we see a lot of GM models are discontinued.General Motors and Aisin began to develop a gearbox, to solve the US auto companies in the precursor transmission system problems.
For a cost advantage of the Japanese car, the hands of the grip of the media and a firm sense of social responsibility, naturally the United States three major auto bankruptcy bankruptcy, prostitution, acquisitions.
American cars have been counterattack, but mostly ineffective. General understanding of some more, so the following counter to GM as the representative.
You can see, in the global warming media coverage, the headlines are one one point to the vehicle exhaust emissions. This is the same as now; the media is not responsible for the general push to the deeper abyss. The media pointed out that carbon dioxide emissions from vehicle emissions accounted for 20% of global warming, carbon dioxide emissions, and later this group of journalists went back to prove some of the proof is indeed a mistake, but refused to very cheap. Saturn finally comes to an end, because of the VUE in bad feedback and brought to its knees.
GM would like to develop diesel engines, but also do not want to re-development, so stubborn from the gasoline engine based on converted into diesel engines, resulting in large-scale production after the failure. In the Ford and German cars are insisting after the drive, GM only adheres to the predecessor models, the lack of models of Cadillac from some Chevrolet models on the Cadillac-style improvements, the final challenge to BMW also failed.
Cadillac branding is also right, to expand the brand influence, to create a unique concept of honor, General Motors and Lincoln is very competitive, and ultimately to the car rental company a lot of new low-cost Cadillac sedan, resulting in a filled with Cadillac, Lincoln sedan situation. Once the scope of sales to enlarge, those who want to own the distinguished owners of the Cadillac how will choose it? And ultimately in the brand influence and backward Mercedes-Benz, BMW, Jaguar.
Some variable cylinder management technology, due to immature electronic technology, GM anxious to launch, leading to frequent failures after the listing. General Motors fault rate has begun to make some high-level head of the big.
Japanese cars defeated US cars mainly because of the cheap Japanese cars, after all, Japan was a labor-intensive country and the United States at the time compared to automobile manufacturing is a labor-sensitive industry, according to the OH model, small Japanese car The above is a comparative advantage, of course, the cost will be much lower. The top-ranked answer answered a more specific question, said a lot of micro-level enterprises for the market response, I am here to talk about the macro-level considerations.
First, Japan has a comparative advantage in making cars, so it should export cars and import products that do not have a comparative advantage, such as airplanes.According to the above model, we can know that in the ideal state, we should produce and export products with comparative advantage, and import products without comparative advantage, so as to maximize the social welfare. (See Ricardian model, specific factor model, and OH model.
Second, that era of oil prices to Japan to catch up with a chance to catch up with Europe, the first answer has been given in detail, there is not much to say.
Third, the impact of US car prices will lead to these enterprises to reduce costs and reduce the scale, causing layoffs, which is never allowed to trade unions things.Union for the United States is a bug. Then the union put pressure on the government and proposed to impose taxes on imported Japanese cars to ensure the competitiveness of American cars. Japanese car lost the price advantage, the role of the United States to protect the vehicle prices is huge, at least to ensure that they do not have to be out of the market. This is their counter measure.
Fourth, with the protection of tariffs, the US car companies are no longer keen to manufacture small-displacement cars, resulting in the US car prices in the production of trucks and large displacement SUV has accumulated more advantages. But the consequences of the new century, the latest round of rising oil prices, the United States are good at large displacement cars to have been severely hit, Hummer, Saab, Pontiac and other brands have to choose to sell or stop operations.
PS: Hummer this brand was indeed sold to a manufacturer in Sichuan, the transaction has been completed, I told my classmates in general, this brand is the sale of the success of the money to get the. So the Hummer brand has not been suspended only after selling do not know why, China’s Hummer brand to buy this business did not go to a repairer, and to 11 years or so, this enterprise, failed. There can know the inside story can tell me about this thing.
The United States was already a very mature car market, where maturity refers mainly to grow users.
In this context, Japanese cars (at least in the North American market) are cheap, safe, and of high quality (quality is very important).
Fuel consumption changes also contributed to the top Japanese car.
General to do enough or the car as a high-end goods Toyota’s goal is to become a civilian car and Toyota’s boss is doing very hard to do with Japan’s own technological innovation, reducing fuel consumption and reduce vehicle production costs
Most US v8 engine displacement is too high not environmentally friendly
Japanese cars cheaper fuel economy and environmental quality are also good.
Change the world of machines, classic management books, can be the core of the answer to the questionNow that the election is coming to an end, it is clear that the central issue in this round of presidential elections is economic. But the problem in the economy and the reality of this economy is different. When Mitt Romney declared during his second presidential debate that he would have listed China as a currency manipulator if he was elected, that idea flashed through my mind. The pre-emptive appeal is to attract a large number of frustrated manufacturing workers and their bosses in the “Rust Belt” states. But this confirms how much we do not understand our position in the new global economy.
Now that the election is coming to an end, it is clear that the central issue in this round of presidential elections is economic. But the point in the economy and the reality of this economy is different. When Mitt Romney declared during his second presidential debate that he would have listed China as a currency manipulator if he was elected, that idea flashed through my mind. The pre-emptive appeal is to attract a large number of frustrated manufacturing workers and their bosses in the “Rust Belt” states. But this confirms how much we do not understand our position in the new global economy.
Not long ago, the United States was in a dominant position in the global economy. From the 1950s to the 1980s, the United States was the world’s dominant producer and consumer. From Europe to Latin America and Asia, success depends on how much energy they can draw from the tremendous economic growth of the United States. However, in the 1970s, the situation began to change, when Japan and Germany began manufacturing better than the United States similar products, automotive, factory equipment and electronic accessories. In the next 30 years, the United States struggled to adjust to the increasing competitiveness of Asian and Latin American producers. But as long as the United States to maintain the status of the world’s largest consumer market, the United States there is still a great influence. For example, the US government has been able to persuade Pakistan to join the global war on terror, in part because the United States is committed to Pakistan socks manufacturers to enter the US market can enjoy the duty-free treatment.
Ian Bremmer, the president of Eurasia Group, a political consultancy, is worth thinking about. Bremer said that in the past half-century, the United States based on its strong military power and an enormous market, the United States can reward, but also punishment. Although the United States maintained its military status, the rest of the world was less dependent on the US market. Romney and Barack Obama can do whatever they can to punish China (in fact, Obama mentioned in 2008), but their statement is that they either do not realize that the US economic forces have weakened, or they Just afraid, dare not speak out the fact (the latter is more likely). If this is too bad. “If the next president can persuade US companies to stop complaining about China and concentrate on producing what consumers want to buy, it will help the voters of the Rusty Zone,” Bremer said. For decades, Chinese companies have studied the US market, and now it is time to catch up.
Naturally, with the end of the political cycle, the United States opened a new chapter in the economy. Until the next election, the problems of the past few years will be resolved, and we will see a clearer future. I asked several key experts to predict the situation in the United States by 2016, and they agreed. Jeffrey Frieden of Harvard University told me that the US economy will not rebind soon, but will remain stable but to slow growth. Nigel Gault, of IHS Global Insight, the economic forecasting agency, said the unemployment rate would be around 6.4%. More importantly, Frieden and Bremer pointed out that by 2016, income inequality will become a stable structural feature of the US economy. Millions will not be able to get jobs, and tens of millions will need to receive lower incomes. At the same time, those with the University and advanced education will experience a rebound; income will increase.
It may not be possible for the Chinese economy to go beyond the United States until the 1920s, but by 2016 it would be far less likely that the United States would be able to prevent China from manipulating its currency or stopping China from doing so in any other way. By that time, Americans may be able to feel the power of China’s economy. Brent Iadarola, ahead of industry research firm Frost & Sullivan, told me that the new world economic situation would be similar to that of the US mobile phone market. Almost all US adults have a cell phone, but only 40% of them use the iPhone, Android, and other smartphones. Therefore, it is expected that in the next few years, the mobile phone industry will be rapid development. But by 2016, the US market will be saturated, smartphone manufacturers must add a lot of new features, to fight for a small number of users to upgrade. In the United States will not produce large-scale growth or huge profits. These large companies, as well as ancillary industries such as shell manufacturers and application software developers, will focus on the preferences of emerging markets such as Asia, Eastern Europe, Latin America and Africa.
The American working-class of all walks of life will be more clearly aware that many of their great opportunities are abroad. In the next few years, the US market will promote the development of the pharmaceutical industry, partly because the baby boomers of the generation.